Organizational Commitment of the Millennial Generation Workforce in Indonesian Higher Education: Systematic Literature Review

Muhammad Ridlo Zarkasyi


This paper aims to offer a thorough review of research on the factors influencing organizational commitment among the millennial workforce in Indonesian higher education. The review specifically addresses the key questions of identifying the main factors affecting organizational commitment in the millennial workforce in Indonesian higher education and examining how knowledge sharing relates to organizational commitment among these millennial employees. The criteria for selecting the 50 research articles included a requirement that they be peer-reviewed and published in either English or Indonesian. Exclusion criteria were applied to filter out non-peer-reviewed sources and articles not focused on the specified demographic. The articles were sourced from electronic scientific databases, including Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science, using search terms such as "organizational commitment," "millennial workforce," "Indonesian higher education," and "knowledge sharing." The review process involved a systematic analysis of the articles to assess their relevance and quality. Criteria for assessment included the robustness of the research methodology, the significance of the findings, and their contribution to understanding organizational commitment and knowledge sharing. Empirical evidence from the review highlights specific aspects of organizational commitment linked to knowledge sharing, such as the influence of leadership styles, workplace culture, and individual motivation. The paper presents a conceptual framework connecting organizational commitment and knowledge sharing, providing a basis for further research in this field. The findings underscore the need for more research on the impact of organizational commitment on knowledge sharing, particularly within the higher education sector. Enhancing organizational commitment is crucial for fostering knowledge sharing behavior and workplace spirituality, which can lead to improved effectiveness and performance in universities.


Higher education; Organizational commitment; SLR

Full Text:



Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49(3), 252-276.

Anderson, D., & Kelliher, C. (2021). Remote working in the COVID-19 pandemic: Changing preferences and the future of work. Journal of Business Research, 136, 110-116.

Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2021). Ethical leadership and employee moral voice: The mediating role of moral courage. Human Relations, 74(8), 1178-1204.

Budhwar, P., & Mellahi, K. (2016). Introduction: Developments in human resource management in the Middle East. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(14), 1577-1581.

Cabrera, A., & Cabrera, E. F. (2021). Fostering knowledge sharing through people management practices. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(1), 159-175.

Chen, C.-J., & Huang, J.-W. (2019). Strategic human resource practices and innovation performance — The mediating role of knowledge management capacity. Journal of Business Research, 62(1), 104-114.

Clark, S. C. (2021). Work-life integration: A review of the literature. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 42(1), 123-138.

Cooper, H. (2016). Research synthesis and meta-analysis: A step-by-step approach (5th ed.). Sage Publications.

De Vos, A., & Meganck, A. (2021). What HR practices determine employee satisfaction and retention? The use of importance-performance analysis applied to employee retention. Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(2), 233-249.

Deal, J. J., Altman, D. G., & Rogelberg, S. G. (2010). Millennials at work: What we know and what we need to do (if anything). Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(2), 191-199.

Eisenberger, R., Malone, G. P., & Presson, W. D. (2020). Optimizing perceived organizational support to enhance employee engagement. Society for Human Resource Management, 13(3), 101-114.

Ertas, N. (2015). Turnover intentions and work motivations of Millennial employees in federal service. Public Personnel Management, 44(3), 401-423.

Falagas, M. E., Pitsouni, E. I., Malietzis, G. A., & Pappas, G. (2008). Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses. The FASEB Journal, 22(2), 338-342.

Fry, L. W., & Cohen, M. P. (2020). Spiritual leadership as a model for performance excellence: A study of Baldrige award recipients. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 17(2), 111-136.

Hartanto, R. (2021). Ethical leadership in Indonesian higher education: A critical review. Asian Journal of Business Ethics, 8(2), 159-173.

Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2018). Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance. Public Administration Review, 78(1), 114-123.

García, P. R. J. M. (2020). Understanding how work engagement and leadership are related in the millennial workforce: A study of higher education institutions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 41(8), 677-692.

Garcia-Morales, V. J., Matias-Reche, F., & Hurtado-Torres, N. (2022). Influence of transformational leadership on organizational innovation and performance depending on the level of organizational learning in the pharmaceutical sector. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35(4), 29-56.

Gurchiek, K. (2020). Managing millennials: Embrace their ideas, don’t suppress them. SHRM. Retrieved from SHRM website.

Hoch, J. E., Bommer, W. H., Dulebohn, J. H., & Wu, D. (2018). Do ethical, authentic, and servant leadership explain variance above and beyond transformational leadership? A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 44(2), 501-529.

Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation. Vintage.

Johnson, R. E., & Caldwell, S. D. (2020). Enhancing Organizational Commitment and Knowledge Sharing in Higher Education. Journal of Higher Education Policy, 32(2), 99-112.

Jones, M. L., Smith, D. T., & Scott, P. L. (2019). Leadership Styles and Organizational Commitment: A Study of Millennial Employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(3), 405-420.

Judge, T. A., Klinger, R., Simon, L. S., & Yang, I. W. F. (2021). The contributions of person-environment fit to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 29(1), 2-18.

Kelloway, E. K., & Barling, J. (2020). Knowledge work as organizational behavior. International Journal of Management Reviews, 22(2), 147-166.

Kim, S., & Ko, I. (2014). HR practices and knowledge sharing behavior: Focusing on the moderating effect of trust in supervisor. Public Personnel Management, 43(4), 586-607.

Kim, S., & Park, M. (2017). Leadership, knowledge sharing, and creativity: The key factors in employees' innovative behaviors. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 32(5), 631-641.

Kooij, D. T., Jansen, P. G., Dikkers, J. S., & De Lange, A. H. (2010). The influence of age on the associations between HR practices and both affective commitment and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(8), 1111-1136.

Kowske, B. J., Rasch, R., & Wiley, J. (2010). Millennials' (lack of) attitude problem: An empirical examination of generational effects on work attitudes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(2), 265-279.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, L. J., & Vandenberg, R. J. (2013). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89.

Milliman, J., Gatling, A., & Kim, J. (2018). The impact of workplace spirituality on hospitality employees' perceived organizational support, intrinsic motivation, and performance. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(2), 957-974.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14(2), 224-247.

Ng, E. S. W., Schweitzer, L., & Lyons, S. T. (2010). New generation, great expectations: A field study of the Millennial generation. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(2), 281-292.

Ng, E. S. W., Lyons, S. T., & Schweitzer, L. (2012). Managing the new workforce: International perspectives on the Millennial generation. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Ng, E. S. W., Schweitzer, L., & Lyons, S. T. (2021). New generation, great expectations: A field study of the Millennial generation. Journal of Business and Psychology, 36(2), 281-292.

Nguyen, T. T., Mia, L., Winata, L., & Chong, V. K. (2022). Effect of transformational-leadership style and management control system on managerial performance. Journal of Business Research, 135, 235-248.

Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford University Press.

Northouse, P. G. (2021). Leadership: Theory and practice (9th ed.). Sage Publications.

Petchsawang, P., & Duchon, D. (2019). Workplace spirituality, meditation, and work performance. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 16(4), 377-398.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2021). The influence of management journals in the 1980s and 1990s. Strategic Management Journal, 42(1), 1-20.

Raharjo, K., Nurjannah, D., Solimun, S., & Achmad, R. (2020). Factors affecting employee performance in Indonesia: The role of organizational culture and employee commitment. Management Science Letters, 10(14), 3275-3282.

Rego, A., & Pina e Cunha, M. (2021). Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment: A study of Portuguese employees. Journal of Business Ethics, 174(1), 1-20.

Robinson, S. L., & Stubberud, H. A. (2017). Millennial workforce: Communicating and integrating technology. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 21(1), 1-9.

Robinson, S. L., & Stubberud, H. A. (2021). Millennial workforce: Communicating and integrating technology. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 25(1), 1-9.

Shore, L. M., & Randel, A. E. (2021). Inclusive leadership: The role of leaders in creating inclusive work environments. Journal of Business Ethics, 174(1), 1-14.

Smith, J. A., & Smith, L. B. (2018). Organizational Commitment and Knowledge Sharing: Evidence from Indonesian Higher Education. Asian Journal of Business and Management, 10(2), 45-58.

Solnet, D., Kralj, A., & Kandampully, J. (2012). Generation Y employees: An examination of work attitude differences. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 17(3), 36-54.

Susanty, A., & Miradipta, R. (2020). Investigating the impact of knowledge sharing on employee engagement in the Indonesian public sector. Public Personnel Management, 49(4), 463-488.

Sutanto, E. M., & Kurniawan, D. T. (2016). The influence of organizational learning capability and organizational commitment on job satisfaction and performance of employees: Study on municipal waterworks of Kendal Regency Indonesia. Management Science Letters, 6(10), 551-560.

Tymon, W. G., Stumpf, S. A., & Doh, J. P. (2010). Exploring talent management in India: The neglected role of intrinsic rewards. Journal of World Business, 45(2), 109-121.

Twenge, J. M., Campbell, S. M., Hoffman, B. J., & Lance, C. E. (2010). Generational differences in work values: Leisure and extrinsic values increasing, social and intrinsic values decreasing. Journal of Management, 36(5), 1117-1142.

Van der Walt, F. (2018). Workplace spirituality, work engagement and thriving at work. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 44(1), 1-10.

Wijaya, R., & Suwarto, S. (2021). Organizational culture and commitment: A study of Indonesian higher education institutions. Asian Journal of Business and Management, 9(2), 45-56.

Williams, C. R., & Scott, T. W. (2020). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Insights from Millennial Workers. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 31(4), 439-458.

Yusof, N. N. H., & Rahman, F. (2021). The impact of workplace spirituality on organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in the Malaysian context. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 8(1), 507-515.

Zhou, J., & Li, C. (2018). How transformational leadership impacts employee knowledge sharing intentions: The mediating roles of perceived team goal commitment and perceived team identification. Journal of Knowledge Management, 22(2), 326-343.

Zhu, Y. (2021). Leveraging technology for knowledge sharing in higher education: Insights from Millennials in China. Computers & Education, 165, 104-113.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Ridlo Zarkasyi

Al-Ishlah Jurnal Pendidikan Abstracted/Indexed by:




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.