The Effectiveness of a Critical Literacy Model to Improve Students’ Critical Literacy Skills

Diyah Ayu Rizqiani, Sri Yuliani, Roziah Roziah, Al Malikul Ikhwanda Putra


In the current era of media saturation, the emphasis on teaching reading is on cultivating students' critical literacy abilities. This enables them to examine the specific social and political biases conveyed by an author and form a critical perspective on the topics addressed in a text. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a critical literacy model in enhancing students' critical literacy abilities during English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Reading classes. A quantitative analytic method was employed for experimental study. The study was conducted in the English Language Education Study Program at a private university situated in Yogyakarta. There were 20 students in the sampling. The individuals in question were students in their fifth semester who enroll in the Critical Reading Class during the Odd Semester of the Academic Year 2022/2023. The data were acquired through the methods of observation, questionnaire administration, interviews, and reading assessments. The study's findings showed that the model was effective, as evidenced by the results of the independent T test indicate a statistically significant difference, with a significance level (two-tailed) below 0.05. In addition, the scores of the pre-test and post-tests in the experimental class surpassed those in the control class. The experimental group demonstrated a substantial improvement in their post-test score, achieving a gain of 3.64 points. In summary, the implementation of the critical literacy framework yielded significant improvements in students' critical literacy skills across various dimensions, including precision, coherence, profundity, analysis, and the identification of latent implications.


critical literacy model, critical literacy skill, EFL reading class

Full Text:



Abednia, A. (2015). Practicing Critical Literacy in Second Language Reading. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 6(2), 77–94.

Behrman, E. H. (2006). Teaching About Language, Power, and Text: A Review of Classroom Practices That Support Critical Literacy. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(6), 490–498.

Cadiero-kaplan, K. (2002). Literacy Ideologies : Critically Engaging the Language Arts Curriculum. Language Arts, 79(5), 372–381.

Chambers, J., & Radbourne, C. (2015). Developing Critical Literacy Skills through Using the Environment as Text. Language and Literacy, 17(1), 1.

Coffey, H. (2009). Critical Literacy.

Cook, T. D. (2015). Quasi-expermintal design. In Wiley Encyclopedia of Management (pp. 1–2).

Damaianti, V. S., Damaianti, L. F., & Mulyati, Y. (2017). Cultural Literacy Based Critical Reading Teaching Material with Active Reader Strategy for Junior High School. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 6(4), 312–317.

Donal, A. (2015). Students Reading Interest (A case study at FKIP of the university of Pasir Pengaraian). Journal of English Education, 1(1), 23–31.

Grabe, W. (2010). Fluency in reading — Thirty-five years later. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(1), 71–83.

Gustine, G G. (2013). Designing and Implementing a Critical Literacy-Based Approach in an Indonesian EFL Secondary School. International Journal of Indonesian Studies, 1, 2–21.

Gustine, Gin Gin. (2018). a Survey on Critical Literacy As a Pedagogical Approach. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(3), 531–537.

Hikmat, M. H. (2016). Developing Students ’ Critical Literacy in Reading Clss at an English Education Department in Indonesia. The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature, and Teaching., 474–481.

Huang, S. (2011). Reading “ Further and Beyond the Text ”: Student Perspectives of Critical Literacy in EFL Reading and Writing. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55, 145–154.

Iftanti, E. (2015). Poor Reading Habit : At Glance Reflection. Lingua Scientia, 2(1), 35–38.

Janks, H. (2002). Critical Literacy : Beyond Reason. Australian Educational Researcher, 29(1), 7–27.

Janks, H. (2013). Critical literacy in teaching. Education Inquiry, 4(2), 225–242.

Jie, Z., Yuhong, J., & Yuan, Y. (2015). The Investigation on Critical Thinking Ability in EFL Reading Class. English Language Teaching, 8(1), 83–94.

Kim, S. J. (2016). Opening up Spaces for Early Critical Literacy : Korean Kindergarteners Exploring Diversity through Multicultural Picture Books. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 39(2), 176–187.

Kurniawati, N., Sugaryamah, D., & Hasanah, A. (2020). Proposing a Model of Critical Literacy Program for Fostering Indonesian EFL students’ Critical Thinking Skills. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 14(2), 234–247.

Leal, S., & Nascimento, M. (2019). The Importance of the Act of Reading: Theoretical- Methodological Convergences and Divergences with Paulo Freire. Pro-Posições, 30, 1–23.

Lee, C. J. (2011). Myths about Critical Literacy : What Teachers Need to Unlearn. Journal of Language and Literacy Education, 7(1), 95–102.

Lewison, M., Flint, A. S., & Sluys, K. Van. (2002). Taking on Critical Literacy: The Journey of Newcomers and Novices. Language Arts, 79(5), 382–392.

Lily, Z. (2014). A Discussion of Linguistic Factors Relating to English Reading for Chinese Mongolian Students at Thong Dap University. Studies in Literature and Language, 9(3), 136–142.

Luke. (2012). Critical Literacy : Foundational Notes. Theory into Practice, 51(4), 4–11.

Luke, A., & Dooley, K. (2011). Critical Literacy and Second Language Learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 1–17). Routledge.

Luke, & Freebody. (1999). Further Notes on the Four Resources Model. Retrieved from www.readingonline/research/lukefreebody.html

Mclaughlin, M., & Devoogd, G. (2004). Critical Literacy as Comprehension: Expanding Reader Response. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(1), 52–62.

Mohammad, Z. A., & Hasbi, M. (2021). Reading Difficulties in English as a Second Language in Grade Five at Saint Patrick’s High School for Boys, Hyderabad-India. Arab World English Journal, 12(4), 521–535.

Papadopoulos, I. (2017). Promoting Critical Literacy in the EFL Context: Implementing a Project to Young Learners. European Journal of Language and Literature, 7(1), 107.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts & Tools. Retrieved from

Rambe, Y. (2017). Development of Critical Literacy Based-Critical Reading Model as a Learning Model. Journal of Indonesian Language Education and Literary, 2(1), 73–82.

Rizqiani, D. A. (2022). Developing A Critical Literacy-Based Reading Instructional (CLBRI) Model for English Language Education Students.

Setyaningsih, E. (2019). Bringing Critical Literacy into Tertiary EFL Reading Class. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 297–307.

Sultan, Rofiudin, A., Nurhadi, & Priyatni, E. T. (2017). The Effect of the Critical Literacy Approach on Pre-Service Language Teachers ’ Critical Reading Skills. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 71, 159–174.

Velayati, N., Muslem, A., Fitriani, S. S., & Samad, I. A. (2017). An Exploration of Students’ Difficulties in Using Critical Thinking Skills in Reading. Al-Ta Lim Journal, 24(3), 195–206.

Yoon, B. (2022). Critical Literacy for English Language Learners. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education.

Zhang, G. (2015). Learning Critical Literacy in ESL Classrooms. Creative Education, 6, 1316–1321.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Diyah Ayu Rizqiani

Al-Ishlah Jurnal Pendidikan Abstracted/Indexed by:




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.